Use Cases

The SatSite Basestation and Shipboard IoT

This article tells how the Legba SatSite is an exceptional choice for a low-cost, single-box DCSA IoT data gateway on a vessel (as described in Section 3.1 of “IoT Container Standards: IoT Standard for Gateway Connectivity Interfaces“). What is a “data gateway on vessel”? The DCSA IoT architecture defines a gateway as an entity that connects the “internal interfaces” of the cargo containers (radio interfaces) to the “external interfaces” of the IoT management system (IP or other data interfaces). These gateways are intended to support specific “use cases”: on land, at specific transition points (“events”, like customs clearance), used with …

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“Local Breakout” in GPRS

This article describes the “local breakout” function in YateBTS/OpenBTS GPRS cells, where user IP traffic originates directly from the cell site instead of from a centralized GGSN in the core network. Standard GPRS Architecture The standard GPRS data network has these parts: BTS – the actual radio basestation, which handles user traffic up to layer 2 BSC – the basestation controller, which handles layer 3 for multiple BTS units BSS – the BSC and the BTS units it controls, together as the “basestation subsystem” SGSN – “serving GPRS support node”, handles authentication and mobility procedures for data connections GGSN – …

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Answering Your Questions About Private LTE/5G Networks

When we are talking to new customers, there are some common questions that keep coming up. The Basic Basics A lot of the most basic information is covered in this post, but we pulled out some common questions here. Q: What is a “private network”?A: In this context, a private network is a radio network based on cellular technology, but operated for private use instead of as a service to the general public. It means having your own LTE, 5G, or even GSM/GPRS network, operating independently of mobile network operators (AT&T, Verizon, Vodafone, Orange, Telefonica, T-Mobile, etc.). Devices in this network …

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Why You Need a Private LTE/5G Network

Various analysis reports place the value of the private network market at around $3.5B in 2020 and growing at about 13% per year. Where are these networks and what are they used for? And why do customers install them? In a different article, we addressed the question of where these networks are and what industries are using them. In this article, we look at the advantages of private LTE/5G networks over other technologies. Use Cases We will start with the assumption that you have a “use case” for a large-scale wireless network. You have a lot of devices, equipment, monitoring …

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Getting Your LTE/5G Private Network

So you have decided that a private LTE or 5G network is right for you. We are ready to take you through the process. The Steps Our role is to plan, install, and operate your network so that you can focus on running your business. Here are the steps. 1 – Scoping We collect the basic information about your project, such as: Where is your project located? What is your current license status, if any? What sort of area do you need to cover? Indoor? Outdoor? Ground cover? Structures? How many devices do you need to support? What are the …

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Ad Hoc Private Networks in GSM

Introduction NiPC (“network in a PC”) is a mode of operation supported by YateBTS that allows the basestation to operate in 2.5G GSM/GPRS mode without a core network. While YateBTS NiPC mode does support normal authentication and ciphering with a local SIM database, NiPC also offers a feature that bypasses all security procedures and allows a phone to connect without authentication. Although we have moved along to private LTE/5G networks like everyone else in the world, there are still some use cases where this bypass can make GSM/GPRS as the best (or only) choice. This article describes the 2G security architecture that …

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Public Warning Systems in Mobile Networks

Introduction Cell broadcast (CB) is a way to deliver a text message to large numbers of handsets over the cellular network. Its main use today is the delivery of Public Warning System (PWS) messages, also called CMAS, ETWS, Presidential Alerts, EU-Alerts, or other names in different parts of the world. The Legba Lab Kit supports PWS messages through standard signaling from a core network, or through file-based configuration and command line controls (not requiring a core network). This makes the Lab Kit an easy and inexpensive way to test with PWS messages, for handset testing, for testing emergency message content …

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CSFB with the Legba Lab Kit

Introduction Many 4G networks cannot carry plain old telephone calls, so many mobile operators support voice calls by transferring the handset to a 2G or 3G network for the duration of the call. The procedure for doing this is called “Circuit-Switched Fallback”, or CSFB. CSFB is an interesting procedure from a network operation perspective and from a security perspective. With a pair of Legba LabKits, one in 2G mode and one in 4G mode, you can reproduce and modify the CSFB procedure on a test bench. The “Why” and “What” of Circuit-Switched Fallback Circuit-Switched? What is that anyway? Since 1876, …

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